North American Artemisia species from the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush): A phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological review
The genus Artemisia consists of between 350 and 500 species with most of the North American endemic Artemisia species contained within the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush). The reported uses of these species by Native American and First Nations peoples include analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, immunostimulation activity, as well as the treatment of afflictions from spiritual origins. Taxonomic revision for North American Sagebrush has created a number of synonyms that confuse the literature. The phytochemical diversity of the Tridentatae includes at least 220 distinct and important specialized metabolites. This manuscript reviews the current phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological understanding for the subgenus Tridentatae, and provides a foundation for future studies of the metabolomes of the Tridentatae. Modern approaches to phytochemical analysis and drug discovery are likely to provide interesting lead compounds in the near future.