Bolete diversity in two relict forests of the Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana; Fagaceae)
The current distribution of the endangered Mexican beech [Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Martinez) Little] is restricted to relict isolated populations in small remnants of montane cloud forest in northeastern Mexico, and little is known about its associated biota. We sampled bolete diversity in two of these monospecific forests in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We compared alpha diversity, including species richness and ensemble structure, and analyzed beta diversity (dissimilarity in species composition) between forests. We found 26 bolete species, five of which are probably new. Species diversity and evenness were similar between forests. Beta diversity was low, and the similarities of bolete samples from within and between forests were not significantly different. These results support the idea that the two forests share a single bolete ensemble with a common history. In contrast, cumulative species richness differed between the forests, implying that factors other than the mere presence of the host species have contributed to shaping the biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relict Mexican beech forests.